Discover Dynex: PoUW*
With the end of Moore’s law approaching and Dennard scaling ending, the computing community is increasingly looking at new technologies to enable continued performance improvements. A neuromorphic computer is a non von Neumann computer whose structure and function are inspired by biology and physics. Today, such systems can be built and operated using existing technology, even at scale, and are capable of outperforming current quantum computers.
DynexSolve: Proof-of-Useful-Work (PoUW)
As a platform for liberating and accelerating neuromorphic computing, which we believe will be the future of computing, Dynex is a next-generation platform for neuromorphic computing based on a groundbreaking flexible blockchain protocol. It consists of participating miners (using our proprietary PoUW algorithm DynexSolve) that constitute a decentralised neuromorphic supercomputing network which is capable of performing computations at unprecedented speed and efficiency – even exceeding quantum computing.
By transforming traditional inefficient computers and GPUs into neuromorphic chips, we will finally be able to create new discoveries. Transform your old computer or your dormant GPU mining equipment into neuromorphic machines, earn money and generate wealth. Users exchange computation time for Dynex’s native token DNX.
Dynex has developed a proprietary circuit design, the Dynex Neuromorphic Chip, that complements the Dynex ecosystem and turns any modern device into a neuromorphic computing chip that can perform orders of magnitude faster than classical or quantum methodologies for a wide range of applications. Especially due to the dominance of ASICs in the proof-of-work token mining industry, there is a large amount of dormant GPU infrastructure available which can be converted into high performance next-generation neuromorphic computing clusters.
Meaningful Mining with DynexSolve
All participating miners together constitute one enormous neuromorphic computing network using our proprietary PouW algorithm DynexSolve. Consequently, the platform is capable of performing computations at unprecedented speeds and efficiency – even exceeding quantum computing. Dynex neuromorphic computing chips can be simulated using almost any device, from regular laptops to desktop computers to GPUs. Users exchange computation time for Dynex’s native token DNX, thus enabling everyone to earn money on the platform.
Use the Dynex Platform to Compute
The massive computing power provided by the network of Dynex miners can be utilised to perform computations at unprecedented speeds and efficiency. Applications like training of neural networks, finding solutions for constraint-satisfaction problems, mixed integer linear programming, sub-set sum problems or reversible computing can be performed on the platform, enabling businesses, governments and research to compute on the neuromorphic computing cluster. Dynex’s native token DNX is used as compensation for the use of its computing resources. We will be launching the Dynex Marketplace later this year which will allow everyone to run computational tasks on the Dynex platform.
Dynex Neuromorphic Chip
Our proprietary Dynex Chip design is built based on ideal memristors. Memristors are two-terminal resistive devices with memory. In general, their nonlinear dynamic behaviour is mathematically modeled by means of a differential algebraic equation (DAE) set, in which an ordinary differential equation (ODE) governs the time evolution of the memory state, while an algebraic relation captures the state- and input-dependent Ohm law. The memristor, an acronym for memory resistor, was theoretically introduced in 1971 by L.O. Chua. Introduced in the 1971 pioneering paper, presently referred to as ideal memristor, is the fourth fundamental two-terminal circuit element, the other three being the resistor, the capacitor, and the inductor. Since then, the interest on memristors and their applications has been growing exponentially, with both academia and industry deploying a huge amount of funds and personnel to fabricate, model, and explore the full potential of these devices in electronics applications.
Memristor: The missing circuit elementThis paper presents the logical and scientific basis for the existence of a new two-terminal circuit element called the memristor (a contraction for memory resistor) which has every right to be as basic as the three classical circuit elements already in existence, namely, the resistor, inductor, and capacitor.
As the ideal memristor is a theoretical model, our chip cannot be built with current technology. However, it can be simulated efficiently by numerically integrating its equations of motion. The entire Dynex Chip can be realized physically as a non-linear dynamical system, which is composed of point attractors that represent the solutions to the problem. It is possible to numerically integrate Dynex machines’ equations of motion, since they are non-quantum systems. The performance of similar machines on a wide variety of combinatorial optimisation problems has already been demonstrated to be orders of magnitude faster than that of traditional algorithmic approaches. Subsequently, by employing topological field theory, it was shown that the physical reason behind this efficiency rests on the dynamical long-range order that develops during the transient dynamics where avalanches (instantons in the field theory language) of different sizes are generated until the system reaches an attractor. The transient phase of the solution search therefore resembles that of several phenomena in Nature, such as earthquakes, solar flares or quenches.
The DynexSolve PoUW algorithm performs ODE integration (simulations) of our Dynex Chips. By utilising the massive parallelism of all participating Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), we can achieve close to realtime performance of the original chip design. This allows computations of constraint satisfaction problems, mixed integer linear programming, quadratic unconstraint binary optimisation, maximum satisfiability problem, federated machine learning, efficient pre-training of restricted boltzmann machines and deep neural networks, subset sum problems or integer factorisation.
Our Dynex Neuromorphic Chip utilises GPUs to achieve close to real-time performance of our Dynex Chips. It can be adapted freely to the problem to be computed and it can also be interconnected and operated as part of a cluster. Using the Dynex Neuromorphic Chip, problems that cannot be solved with classical or quantum methods can be solved, therefore eliminating the barrier posed by the von Neumann bottleneck. It may be used to solve hard optimisation problems, to implement integer linear programming (ILP), to carry out machine learning (ML), to train deep neural networks or to improve computing efficiency generally.
To summarise, to Dynex supercomputing platform is a hybrid between a proprietary block-chain, a neuromorphic Dynex chip and state-of-the-art malleable infrastructure. As for our blockchain enabled malleable infrastructure, it has been inspired by a range of compelling background research and literature, for example Scalable SAT Solving in the Cloud, SAT 2021, as well as Decentralized Online Scheduling of Malleable NP-hard Jobs, Euro-PAR 22. Most notably, such systems outperformed any other system during the annual international SAT competition in 2022, however, their solution was using off-the-shelf sat solving software.
Computational Tasks Currently Supported by Dynex
0 JOB_TYPE_SAT (constraint satisfaction problem) 1 JOB_TYPE_MILP (mixed integer linear programming) 2 JOB_TYPE_QUBO (quadratic unconstraint binary optimisation) 3 JOB_TYPE_MAXSAT (maximum satisfiability problem) 4 JOB_TYPE_FEDERATED_ML (federated machine learning) 5 JOB_TYPE_PRETRAINING_ML (efficient pre-training of restricted boltzmann machines, deep neural networks) 6 JOB_TYPE_SUBSET_SUM (subset sum problems) 7 JOB_TYPE_INTEGER_FACTORISATION (integer factorisation)
Dynex History & Roadmap
Behind every project is always a story, here is ours: Initially we didn’t have the intention to build a blockchain or to launch a coin – our main research interest was to create the Dynex-Chip, a neuromorphic chip to solve the issue of Moore’s law ending. We tried multiple different approaches and reviewed hundreds of research papers in this area to narrow down the most feasible approaches to neuromorphic computing. Our first chip design solved problems with up to eight variables and was implemented on breadboards with a number of Raspberry Pis connected. It was huge and very unpractical, but it did what it was supposed to do: Performing in-memory-processing, having instantonic behaviour and showing long-range order, similar to what we usually see in quantum machines.
Subsequently we implemented the chip’s functionality on FPGAs and put together around 1,500 FPGAs to form a cluster of our Dynex-Chips. The tests confirmed the functionality, but we soon realised that scaling it further will be challenging as there’s only limited availability for additional FPGAs. At that time an article caught our attention, addressing the issue of energy used for crypto-mining. We realised that a lot of computing power is being wasted every single minute on just calculating hashes, so we asked ourselves: “Why not utilise this energy to do something meaningful?”. We decided to follow a decentralised approach – together with a blockchain and a coin. Dynex was born with the goal to build the world’s largest neuromorphic supercomputing platform.
The Dynex main-net was launched on September 16th, 2022 with the possibility to have the miners choose how they want to contribute: by traditional mining or by running Dynex chips (or a combination). Even without any advertising, quickly a community emerged and a lot of people joined. Just four weeks after launch we already had four mining pools, a first listing on txbit.io and a community of hundreds of people supporting us. Dynex-Chip operations ramped up rapidly to five billion computing steps, proofing that the Dynex chip can operate on large scale successfully. As a next step, on December 1st, 2022, we merged the chip’s functionality directly into our mining algorithm (DynexSolve). We are currently building up a customer base for the usage of the computation power provided by the Dynex platform. Additional listings as well as an “ethics committee”, which will be the gatekeeper of what formulations will be solved on the network, will be established. Marketing & promotion teams and an enterprise sales team are being hired currently. We are also planning on creating the “Dynex Donation Fund”, which is a fund supporting projects in need to tackle the issues the world is facing right now. Later we will launch the “Dynex Market”, which is the marketplace for computations on the Dynex platform, where dynamic pricing of the computations as well as job-prioritisation are the main elements.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
What is Dynex?
With the end of Moore’s law approaching and Dennard scaling ending, the computing community is increasingly looking at new technologies to enable continued performance improvements. A neuromorphic computer is a nonvon Neumann computer whose structure and function are inspired by biology and physics. Today, such systems can be built and operated using existing technology, even at scale, and are capable of outperforming current quantum computers.
Dynex is a next-generation platform for neuromorphic computing based on a new flexible blockchain protocol. It consists of participating nodes that together constitute one enormous neuromorphic computing network. Consequently, the platform is capable of performing computations at unprecedented speeds and efficiency – even exceeding quantum computing. Everyone is welcome to participate, since the Dynex neuromorphic computing chip is capable of being simulated using almost any device, from regular laptops to desktop computers to GPUs, FPGAs and ASIC clusters. Users exchange computation time for Dynex’s native token DNX, thus enabling everyone to earn money on the platform.
Dynex has also developed a proprietary circuit design, the Dynex Neuromorphic Chip, that complements the Dynex ecosystem and turns any modern field programmable gate array (FPGA) based chip into a neuromorphic computing chip that can perform orders of magnitude faster than classical or quantum methodologies for a wide range of applications. Due to the dominance of ASICs in the proof-of-work token mining industry, there is a large amount of dormant FPGA infrastructure available which can be converted into high performance next-generation neuromorphic computing clusters.
When/how was Dynex launched?
Dynex was built to be a battle-ready network that supports permissionless, composable tokens and provides a secure, efficient, next-generation neuromorhpic computing platform. The initial design started in 2020, with the mainnet launching on September 16th, 2022.
There is a maximum supply of 100,000,000 DNX. There was no private sales, pre-mine, or initial coin offering.
The Dynex project is community-driven and entirely focused on promoting development and widespread adoption of the Dynex platform.
How can I get DNX?
There are three possibilities to obtain DNX, Dynex’s native token:
- Perform mining (proof-of-work) on your computer systems and get rewarded – on CPU, GPU and FPGA
- Run the Dynex Neuromorphic Chip on your computer systems and get paid for the usage on a per minute basis – on CPU, GPU and FPGA
- Buy DNX on an exchange
Is Dynex green?
In light of the growing threat of climate change to our environment and our future, it is imperative that we take every measure necessary to reduce global energy consumption. An accelerated adoption of neuromorphic computing will therefore benefit our entire society since it uses orders of magnitude less energy compared to traditional computing systems. For more information, read our publication “Smart Mining — Reinventing the Cryptographic Puzzle to Make it More Meaningful”
What is the Dynex emission schedule?
There’s no initial coin offering („ICO“), no pre-mining and no coin drop for developers or any other hidden incentive built into the token. Upon launch of the
Dynex mainnet, all 100,000,000.0 DNX tokens will be available according tot he emission schedule. To ensure the smoothness of the emission process we use the following formula for block rewards: BaseReward = (MSupply − A) ≫ 18, where A is amount of previously generated coins. A new block is generated every 120 seconds in the Dynex blockchain.
The following graphic displays the emission graphically. Please note that the Dynex mainnet launched on September 16th, 2022.
What is the maximum supply of Dynex tokens?
There is a maximum supply of 100,000,000 DNX.
Is there a wallet for Dynex?
First, there’s the Dynex Mobile Web Wallet. No installation, no download, just two clicks to get started.
There is also a convenient Dynex wallet app for Windows, MacOS and Linux. You can download and install it from our GitHub repository. Here’s how it looks:
How can I run a Dynex node?
Anyone who downloads the Dynex software, which is available on Microsoft Windows, Apple MacOS and Linux, can start a Dynex node with a few simple commands. Just choose the number of cores which you will use for running the Dynex chip as well as for proof-of-work (mining).
How much do I earn when I run a Dynex Chip on my machine?
Users who are contributing CPU resources are getting compensated on a “per computing step” basis. As you are running a Neuromorphic Chip on your regular machine, the Dynex chip will be simulated on it (by numerically integrating the equations of motion of the circuit, but that’s more a tech detail, see below). We measure the speed of the integration in “Integration Steps”, which is also the basis for your compensation. You can choose how much you charge per 1,000 integration steps, which is then matched with the computing requests and what their budget is. As a rule of thumb, 1,000 integration steps require around 1 minute of real time on a Macbook Pro per core. You can run multiple cores with the command “start_dynexchip <NUMBER OF THREADS>”:
To stop your Dynex chips, use the command “stop_dynexchip”. You will be compensated every 1,000 integration steps with DNX which you will receive in the wallet you have specified (or from where you have started the chips). Every 1,000 steps your node submits your proof-of-work of your computations to the customer, who in turn can quickly verify the correctness of the calculation.
How do I mine Dynex?
Dynex mining is based on a memory-hard algorithm which is designed to be Proof of Work algorithm. It can run on CPUs and on most low-end GPUs at cooler temperatures than other algorithms – increasing mining equipment longevity.
Dynex was created for regular people, Proof of Work allows a truly fair start and the highest degree of decentralisation. It’s also widely studied, has very high-security guarantees and is friendly to light clients. These are all essential for having useful tokens that are ready today.
Why neuromorphic computing?
Neuromorphic computers offer a number of fundamental operational advantages:
- Inherently parallel operation is a characteristic of neuromorphic computers, where all neurons and synapses can potentially operate simultaneously; however, when compared with the parallelized von Neumann systems, neurons and synapses perform relatively simple computations.
- Memory and processing are co-located: in neuromorphic hardware, there is no concept of separating memory and processing. In many implementations, neurons and synapses perform processing and store values in tandem, despite the fact that neurons are sometimes thought of as processing units and synapses as memory units. By combining the processor and memory, the von Neumann bottleneck regarding processor/memory separation is mitigated, resulting in a reduction in maximum throughput. Furthermore, this collocation reduces the need for data access from the main memory, which consumes a large amount of energy compared to compute energy.
- Neuromorphic computers have inherent scalability since adding more neuromorphic chips increases the number of neurons and synapses. . In order to run larger and larger networks, it is possible to treat multiple physical neuromorphic chips as a single large neuromorphic implementation. Several large-scale neuromorphic hardware systems have been successfully implemented, including SpiNNaker and Loihi.
- Neuromorphic computers use event-driven computation (meaning, computing only when available data is available) and temporally sparse activity to achieve extremely high computational efficiency. There is no work being performed by neurons and synapses unless there are spikes to be processed, and typically spikes are relatively sparse in the network operation.
- Stochasticity can be incorporated into neuromorphic computers, for instance when neurons fire, to accommodate noise.
Can I run the Dynex Neuromorphic Chip on my Laptop?
Everyone is welcome to participate, since the Dynex neuromorphic computing chip is capable of being simulated using almost any device, from regular laptops to desktop computers to GPUs, FPGAs and ASIC clusters. Users exchange computation time for Dynex’s native token DNX, thus enabling everyone to earn money on the platform.
Can Dynex scale?
Due to its nature as a platform, Dynex is expected to support long-term contracts for at least the lifetime of an average person. Dynex focuses on using stable, well-tested solutions. Many of the solutions used in Dynex have been formalized in papers that have been presented at peer-reviewed conferences and have been widely discussed in the community.
Technological Deep Dive
Dynex takes a research-based approach and uses stable well-tested solutions to provide a robust platform for developers to build on for years to come. Most of Dynex’s solutions are formalised in papers presented at peer-reviewed conferences and have been widely discussed in the community.
- Whitepaper: “Dynex: A scalable and reliable platform for computing beyond Moore’s law”
- Neuromorphic Computing and its fundamental operational differences
- Dynex Neuromorphic Chip based on the Dynex machine
- Dynex Protocol based on egalitarian proof-of-work
- A New Level of Privacy with untraceable transactions, unlinkable payments using one-time ring signatures
- Resiliency and Survivability of the Dynex platform
- Full Security Analysis establishing linkability, exculpability, unforgeability and anonymity